three green bullets

Glossary

A
  • Alumina

    The main raw material used in the production of aluminium. Refined from bauxite, it is a compound of aluminium and oxygen, and its chemical formula is Al2O3. It takes two kg of alumina to produce one kg of aluminium.

  • Aluminium alloy

    Mixture of aluminium base metal with one or more alloying elements that are either metallic or non-metallic (such as silicon). Depending on the type and amount of elements, as well as the treatment, a difference is drawn between "casting alloys"and "wrought alloys". The aim of alloying is to enhance the properties of the base metal, e.g. its strength and corrosion resistance.

  • Aluminium extrusion

    Products in a wide variety of shapes and cross-sections that are produced in the extrusion process.

  • Aluminium metal plant

    This term aluminium metal plant is used to describe a plant that produces molten aluminium, casts it into shapes or ingots and then subjects some of these products to fabrication processes, such as extrusion and rolling, on the same site.

  • Aluminium oxide

    The main raw material used in the production of aluminium. Refined from bauxite, it is a compound of aluminum and oxygen, and its chemical formula is Al2O3. It takes two kg of alumina to produce one kg of aluminium.

  • Aluminium profile

    Products in a wide variety of shapes and cross-sections that are produced in the extrusion process.

  • Aluminium reduction plant

    The term aluminium reduction plant refers specifically to the plant, or part of the aluminium metal plant, where the process of producing molten aluminium by electrolysis takes place.

  • Aluminium strip

    Flat-rolled aluminium material, ranging in thickness from 0.06 to 5 mm, in long lengths for coiling. Aluminium strip is a semi-finished product that is produced in high volume from pure aluminium and aluminium alloys by high-speed rolling. Strip is subsequently processed into sheet and foil. Usually narrower and longer than aluminium sheet.

  • Anode

    Positive electrode. Input material used in the electrolytic reduction process. Anodes consist of petroleum coke and coal-tar pitch. "Green" anodes are formed from these raw materials, then baked at temperatures of up to 1,250°C and subsequently used as electrically conductive anodes.

  • Anode block

    Carbon that is shaped and baked (calcined) at a high temperature into anodes used in prebake cells.

  • Anode carbon

    Carbon that is shaped and baked (calcined) at a high temperature into anodes used in prebake cells.

  • Anode effect

    Sudden increase in cell voltage, due to either insufficient alumina being dissolved in the electrolyte or the temperature of the electrolyte being too low.

  • Anode paste

    Mixture of petroleum coke and pitch which is added to the Søderberg anode and constitutes the positive pole in the cell. Anode paste is also used to produce prebaked anodes.

B
  • Bauxite

    Ore with aluminum hydroxide as its main constituent; the initial material for the extraction of aluminium. Around four kilograms of bauxite are needed to produce one kilogram of aluminium. Bauxite takes its name from "Les Baux" in southern France where the red ore was first discovered in 1822. Today, over 90 per cent of bauxite comes from the tropical regions of Australia, West Africa and Brazil.

  • Billet

    Extrusion ingot cut to length.

C
  • Cathode

    Negative electrode. The term is used to describe the cathodic part of a cell, i.e. the steel shell with lining. The actual cathode is the metal surface.

  • CO2e

    CO2 equivalents.

D
  • Drawn tubing

    Drawn tubing usually produces product that meets more stringent specifications than extruded product of the same alloy and size. Cold drawing (a type of drawn tubing process) is where extruded stock is drawn through a die, or a series of dies, in order to reduce the outside dimension of the tube.

E
  • Electrolysis

    Splitting chemical compounds with the help of direct current. Used in the production of primary aluminium.

  • Electrolyte

    Electrolyte consists mainly liquid cryolite, aluminium fluoride and calcium fluoride. It is used to dissolve alumina.

  • Extruded profile

    Products in a wide variety of shapes and cross-sections that are produced in the extrusion process.

  • Extruded section

    Products in a wide variety of shapes and cross-sections that are produced in the extrusion process.

  • Extrusion
    Operation whereby rods, tubes and various solid and hollow sections are produced by forcing pre-heated aluminium extrusion ingot through a die by means of a ram.
F
  • Fabrication process

    The fabrication process involves further work and processing of extruded aluminium after it comes out of the extrusion press and is properly cooled and aged. Fabrication services can include joining (welding, bonding, riveting), forming (bending, stretching), and machining (cutting, drilling, mitering, notching).

  • Fatality rate

    Number of fatalities per 100 million hours worked.

  • Foil

    Produced by rolling, aluminium foil is less then 0.02mm thick. It is impervious to gas and light, it is soft and flexible and is highly suitable for the packaging of food and medicines. Aluminium foil is used plain, e.g. for household foil, or converted, i.e. printed, coated, laminated or embossed.

G
H
  • Hazardous waste

    Waste that is harmful to health or to the environment, either directly or over an extended period of time, and thus requiring special treatment. National and supernational authorities often define which substances shall be treated as hazardous waste.

  • High-purity aluminium

    Aluminum with a degree of purity of minimum 99.98 per cent. High-purity aluminium is the starting material for products used in the electrical engineering, electronics and optical industries because of its high electrical and heat conductivity. It is produced by means of different processes, i.e. three-layer electrolysis or the zone refining process, depending on the degree of purity required.

  • Homogenizing

    Controlled heating of extrusion ingot.

L
  • LME

    The London Metal Exchange.

  • LME price

    The LME price is the market price at which aluminium is currently being traded. Since the end of the 1970s, the LME price has been determined on the London Metal Exchange (LME) in US dollars. The LME price is the standard price for producers, fabricators, dealers and end-use industries.

  • LTI rate

    Lost-time injuries per million hours worked.

M
  • Metal plant

    This term metal plant is used to describe a plant that produces molten aluminium, casts it into shapes or ingots and then subjects some of these products to fabrication processes, such as extrusion and rolling, on the same site.

  • MTC rate

    Medical treatment cases per million hours worked.

N
  • NOC

    Net Operating Capital. Inventory turnover + net receivables. Measured in days or absolute monetary terms.

  • NOx

    Nitrous gases, which act as acidifiers and may create local pollution.

P
  • PAH

    Polyaromatic hydrocarbons.

  • Prebake cell

    Electrolytic reduction cell with prebaked anodes. These anodes have to be replaced regularly during the production process.

  • Pressure die casting

    Most widely used casting process for the production of aluminium castings; a casting process in which molten aluminium or aluminium alloy is forced into a steel mould at pressures of between several hundredths to several thousands bar.

  • Primary aluminium

    Aluminium which is produced from alumina using the electrolytic reduction process. Primary means that it is pure aluminium made directly from raw materials, for the first time. (Lat. primus = first).

  • Profile

    Products in a wide variety of shapes and cross-sections that are produced in the extrusion process.

Q
  • Qatalum

    Qatar Aluminium, the joint venture project established to build and operate the primary aluminium plant in Qatar. Hydro and Qatar Petroleum each hold a 50 percent stake in the company. 

R
  • Reduction plant

    The term reduction plant refers specifically to the plant, or part of the metal plant, where the process of producing molten aluminium by electrolysis takes place.

  • Rolling

    The classical processes for producing sheet, strip and foil are hot rolling and cold rolling. During the rolling process, the rolling stock is pushed between two rotating steel cylinders with a gap slightly smaller than the thickness of the rolling stock. The cylinders draw in the strip by means of friction and press the metal through the gap to form the metal.

  • RWC rate

    Indicates the number of restricted work cases per million hours worked.

S
  • Secondary aluminium

    Also known as recycled aluminium; aluminium derived from melting down production scrap (new scrap) or post-consumer aluminium products (old scrap). Up to 95 percent of the energy originally used to produce the primary aluminum is saved during recycling.

  • Section

    Products in a wide variety of shapes and cross-sections that are produced in the extrusion process.

  • Sheet

    A flat-rolled product of large length and diameter and narrow thickness.

  • Søderberg cell

    Electrolytic reduction cell with a continuous anode. Anode paste has to be regularly added to the anode during the production process.

  • SOx

    Sulfuric gases. They act as acidifiers.

  • Strip

    Flat-rolled aluminium material, ranging in thickness from 0.06 to 5 mm, in long lengths for coiling. Aluminium strip is a high-volume, semi-finished product that is produced from pure aluminium and aluminium alloys by high-speed rolling.

T
  • TRI

    Total Recordable Injuries = LTI + RWC + MTC.

  • TRI rate

    TRI cases per 1,000,000 hours worked

V
  • VAW

    Vereinigte Aluminium Werke, the Germany-based aluminium company acquired by Hydro in 2002.

  • Viability

    The term is related to our efforts to contribute to a sustainable future and conveys our understanding of this concept.

  • VOC

    Volatile organic compounds. These are organic chemical compounds that have sufficiently high vapor pressures under normal conditions to significantly vaporize and enter the atmosphere. They include a wide range of carbon-based molecules, such as aldehydes, ketones, and other light hydrocarbons.